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AA oneworld & Other Airline Partner Award information, rules (master thd)

AA oneworld & Other Airline Partner Award information, rules (master thd)

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Old Feb 23, 19, 9:08 pm   -   Wikipost
Please read: This is a community-maintained wiki post containing the most important information from this thread. You may edit the Wiki once you have been on FT for 90 days and have made 90 posts.
 
Last edit by: JDiver
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oneworld and other airline Awards Rules, Information 2015 on

NOTE: Check AA award charts for current awards costs.

List of airlines you can use in redeeming awards:

oneworld airlines (and their oneworld affiliates) are:
  • AA - American Airlines (and American Eagle)
  • BA - British Airways (and BA Cityflyer, Comair, Eastern Airways, Open Skies, Sun Air of Scandinavia, BA Limited) (incurs high YQ surcharge)
  • CX - Cathay Pacific (and KA - Dragonair)
  • AY - Finnair (and Privilege Style, Flybe Finland)
  • IB - Iberia (and Air Nostrum, Iberia Express) (incurs YQ surcharge)
  • JL - Japan Airlines (and J-Air)
  • LA - LAN (and LAN Express, LAN Colombia, LP - LAN Peru) / LATAM
  • MH - Malaysia Airlines
  • RJ - Royal Jordanian
  • QF - Qantas (and QantasLink, Jetconnect - not Jetstar)
  • QR - Qatar Airways
  • S7 - S7 (and Globus - but excludes far eastern Russia / Siberia)
  • UL - SriLankan Airlines
  • JJ - TAM (LATAM)
Non-oneworld airlines one can redeem (MileSAAver) awards on are:
  • TN - Air Tahiti Nui
  • AS - Alaska Airlines
  • EY - Etihad Airways
  • FJ - Fiji Airways (to become oneworld Connect partner)
  • GF - Gulf Air Ended May 2018
  • HA - Hawaiian Airlines
  • 9W - Jet Airways (India)
Airlines that can be booked for award travel on aa.com:

oneworld alliance partners
  • TN - Air Tahiti Nui
  • AA - American Airlines
  • AS - Alaska Airlines (not Virgin America)
  • AY - Finnair
  • BA - British Airways (awards incur YQ airline imposed surcharge)
  • FJ - Fiji Airways
  • HA - Hawaiian Airlines (not interisland not North America - Hawaii)
  • IB - Iberia (lesser YQ surcharge)
  • MH - Malaysia Airlines
  • QF - Qantas Airways
  • QR - Qatar Airways
  • RJ - Royal Jordanian Airlines
  • UL - Sri Lankan Airlines
All other airlines have to be requested by telephone; calling to book awards that cannot be booked online no longer incurs telephone service fees.

Routing assistance, etc.

Check this oneworld interactive map and timetable by Innosked to see potential routes, and you can sign up for British Airways Executive Club or Qantas Frequent Flyer to use their sites to find awards (look for the lowest level awards) you can't see on aa.com. Also see this link to AA.com listing oneworld airlines with information about each.

Originally Posted by JonNYC View Post
(Routings allowed)

Awards may be put on hold for five days. Awards may take time to be verified by the operating airlines. Once approved, they will proceed to a booking queue for ticket issuance; the sooner the trip, the faster the process - and vice versa. See link to thread, below.

Booking for, or changing an award to, travel sooner than 21 days out requires an early booking fee (waived for Executive Platinum members). One can not book farther out, change to closer in and evade this fee any longer (as of 16 Feb 2012)

Booking Business or First awards with JL / Japan Airlines one will only be able to fly in Economy domestically in Japan, but upgrades are quite inexpensive at ₯1,000 or so per flight.

See more below in "General Rules"

Latest changes:
  • As of Aug 2017, Connections are limited to two connections / three flight segments for domestic awards, and three connections / four flight segments for international awards. Link
  • Nov 2016: MH and 9W can now be used on AA or CX transpacific awards to India subcontinent via HKG in addition to CX
  • May 6, 2016: Regions split (Indian Subcontinent, Middle East)
  • Jet Airways discontinued EWR-BRU as of 27 March 2016.
  • As of 7 April 2014, the "free stopover" discussed can no longer be used as free award stopovers at international North American gateways have been eliminated.
  • Airlines are normally precluded from writing tickets with more than 16 segments.
AA Region Definitions*

Region definitions changed again May 6, 2016. Link

Links and resources:
_________________________________________________

updated 11MAY15 by hillrider. Modified and updated from JonNYC's original post in the archived thread (please feel free to update):

Introduction

There are two types of awards discussed below, AA Awards and oneworld and Other Airlines Awards, which are targeted to passengers traveling to a single destination.

As of 1 October 2010 awards may be redeemed for travel on all British Airways flights, including previously excluded flights between the U.S. and U.K. Note that additional British Airways high YQ surcharges, as well as Iberia's lower YQ surcharges, apply based on class-of-service and market flown: see Earning and redeeming AA miles / upgrading on BA/IB; BA fuel surcharge (Oct 1, 2010)

Award Rules
  • American Airlines Awards are valid for travel on flights that are marketed and operated by AA (no codeshares). These awards can be booked online at AA.com.
  • oneworld and Other Airline awards are valid for travel on AA and any of its partner airlines, and can include travel on multiple partners. Many of these awards must be booked over the phone, and will not incur a Ticketing Service Charge (waived for EXPs in any case) if they cannot be booked online.
  • Up to four one-way awards can be booked on a single PNR.
General Rules, Routing and Connections

Passenger has 4h on domestic / 23h59m international travel to connect. If there are no scheduled flights within this timeframe, regardless of availability, the passenger must take the next scheduled flight but, may not exceed 24 hours. If the connection exceeds 24 hours, it will be considered a stopover may require two awards).

If there is a non-stop flight that departs after the 4h / 23h59m windows and arrives at the destination earlier than a connecting flight within the 4h / 23h59m window, the passenger may be booked on the non-stop flight.

Effective on 14 Jul 2014 on an all-AA-metal award itinerary, you now have up to 18 hours to connect when traveling to/from Hawaii [[URL="http://www.flyertalk.com/forum/25730421-post993.html"]Ref]

The particular carrier's Maximum Permitted Miles / MPM + 25% on a particular route. (The MPM by itself often exceeds the distance between the origin and destination airports because connections may be required.)

Or, the "most significant carrier" (e.g. DFW-SFO-HKG-BKK, CX SFO-HKG is the prevailing or most significant carrier) must publish a non-constructed fare between your origin and destination.

To price as a single award, AAdvantage requires the most significant carrier to publish a cash fare (non-constructed) between the origin and destination. Airline MSC would have to have a published fare from XXX to YYY that allows travel on all included airlines, and routing that you want. If the MSC only offers constructed fares between your desired origin and destination, AA will price this as two awards.

Stopovers

None allowed.

Partner award inventories

Award booking inventory classes for each carrier in the AAdvantage Award program are listed below and may be useful when on the phone with an AA rep or when checking availability. See also the Award Booking Codes page in the FlyerGuide wiki for updated information.


Code:
oneworld Partners First Business Economy
 --------------------------------------------------------
 AA - American Airlines Z U T
 --------------------------------------------------------
 AY – Finnair U X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 BA – British Airways Z U X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 CX – Cathay Pacific Z U T
 KA - DragonAir
 --------------------------------------------------------
 IB – Iberia U X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 JJ - TAM Airlines O I X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 JL – Japan Airlines (Intl) Z U T
 JL – Japan Airlines (Dom) Z D S
 --------------------------------------------------------
 LA – LATAM / LAN Chile Z U T
 XL - LAN Ecuador
 LP - LAN Peru
 4M - LAN Argentina
 --------------------------------------------------------
 MH - Malaysia Airlines P U X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 QF - QANTAS Airways P U X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 QR - Qatar Airways Z U X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 RJ – Royal Jordanian U X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 S7 – S7 Airlines U E
 --------------------------------------------------------
 UL - SriLankan Airlines
 --------------------------------------------------------
 
 Other Partners First Business Economy
 --------------------------------------------------------
 FJ – Fiji Airways U X
 --------------------------------------------------------
 TN – Air Tahiti Nui F for Business U for Economy
 --------------------------------------------------------
 AS – Alaska Airlines A W
 --------------------------------------------------------
 LY – El Al Israel P X E
 --------------------------------------------------------
 EY - Etihad O I N
 --------------------------------------------------------
 HA – Hawaiian Airlines D T
 --------------------------------------------------------


General Routing Rules

Routing

General Rules

Passenger has 4h / 23h59m to connect (depending on domestic or international travel). If there are no scheduled flights within this timeframe, regardless of availability, the passenger must take the next scheduled flight but, may not exceed 24 hours. If the connection exceeds 24 hours, it will be considered a stopover.

If there is a non-stop flight that departs after the 4h / 23h59m window and arrives at the destination earlier than a connecting flight within the 4h / 23h59m window, the passenger may be booked on the non-stop flight. It is not necessary to check every flight/carrier to ensure passenger is booked on next scheduled flight.

Must meet Married Segment Logic - a prospective trip may be available when searching segment by segment, yet not be bookable through from origin to destination. When selling seats for through flights and the desired inventory is not available, you cannot opt to sell the flight point-to-point. If sold point-to-point, the error response MULTIPLE SEGMENTS FOR SAME FLIGHT - SELL AS ONE SEGMENT will be received, indicating this booking is not allowed. Overriding the error check by ending the PNR twice is not acceptable.

Within North America
  • Awards wholly within North America are valid on all partner airlines that market and operate their own service within North America.
  • Travel between two cities in the United States via Canada/Mexico is not allowed.
  • Travel between two cities in Canada/Mexico via the United States is not allowed.
  • Passenger must travel the most direct routing.
  • Connections of more than 4 hours are considered a stopover unless the passenger is taking the next scheduled flight and it is outside the 4 hours.
  • Any connection of 24 hours is always considered a stopover.
  • Award travel between Hawaii and North America does not include inter-island flights.
  • Inter-island award travel will allow a maxium of 2 flight segments.
North America To/from Other Regions
  • Award travel to/from North America is allowed on any combination of carriers that service the applicable region except as noted below.
  • Passenger must use most direct routing.
  • Hawaiian Airlines is not valid for these awards.
  • As of Oct 1, 2010, British Airways is valid for all routes, including transatlantic flights between the U.S. and U.K.
  • Travel to Europe, Africa and the Indian Sub-Continent/Middle East must be via the Atlantic only.
  • Travel to Asia 1, Asia 2 and the South Pacific must be via the Pacific.
  • Travel to/from Fiji/Papeete cannot be via Australia/New Zealand.
  • Travel to Easter Island (IPC) must be via Papeete (PPT) or use two awards.
  • North American travel to/from Guam or Saipan, the transpacific segment must be on AA.
  • Passenger has 23h59m to connect, regardless of availability.
  • A connection with more than 23h59m will be considered a stopover.
Travel Wholly Within or Between All Other Regions
These awards do not allow a connection via North America and therefore, do not include travel on American Airlines.
  • Passenger must travel the most direct routing.
  • Connecting travel is not allowed outside the region or regions.
  • Passenger has 23h59m to connect, regardless of availability.
  • A connection with more than 24 hours will be considered a stopover.
Travel Via a Third Region

Travel via a third region is not allowed (note the exception table below).

EXCEPTION TABLE:
To/From Via
  • North America to/from Africa can connect in Europe or in DOH if connecting QR-QR
  • North America to/from Indian Sub Continent/Middle East can connect in Europe
  • North America to/from Asia 2 can connect in Asia 1
  • Central/South America to/from Africa can connect in Europe
  • Central/South America to/from Indian Sub Continent/Middle East can connect in Europe
  • Central/South America to/from South Pacific can connect in South America 2
  • South America 2 to/from Africa can connect in DOH if connecting QR-QR
  • South America 2 to/from Indian Sub Continent/Middle East can connect in Europe
  • Europe to/from Asia 1 can connect in Asia 2 or DOH if connecting QR-QR
  • Europe to/from Asia 2 can connect in DOH if connecting QR-QR
  • Europe to/from South Pacific can connect in Singapore or Bangkok only. Note: this may have been updated to include Bangkok, Doha, Hong Kong, Osaka, Singapore or Tokyo.
  • Africa to/from Asia 1 can connect in Asia 2 or in DOH if connecting QR-QR
  • Africa to/from Asia 2 can connect in DOH if connecting QR-QR
  • Indian Sub Continent/Middle East to/from Asia 1 can connect in Asia 2
  • Indian Sub Continent/Middle East to/from South Pacific can connect in Asia 2
  • Asia 1 to/from South Pacific can connect in Asia 2
Regions:
  • Asia 1 = Japan, Korea, Mongolia
  • Asia 2 = Bhutan, Brunei, China, Guam, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Saipan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
  • South America 2 = Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile (excluding Easter Island), Paraguay, Uruguay
Travel on LAN direct flights between North America and South America Region 2 are allowed. Currently, only one market, Miami to/from Buenos Aries, has direct service. These can only be booked by the liaisons. Contact support for booking assistance.

For permitted changes and fees, see this post


Resources

NOTE: New award charts are in place for awards made 22 March 2016 or later. See the American Airlines charts here and the oneworld and partner award charts here, both those effective through 21 March 2016 and those taking effect 22 Mar 2016.
Awards assistance tools: Use at your own risk; may not be up to date. These are not recommendations.

  • Check this oneworld interactive map and timetable by Innosked to see potential routes.

  • British Airways Executive Club: You can sign up for British Airways Executive Club, Japan Airlines JAL Mileage Bank or Qantas Frequent Flyer to use their sites to find awards (look for the lowest level awards) you can't see on aa.com. Can show "phantom" availability.

  • Award Nexus: It's easy to do your experiments for some free browsing (click "more signup options" under the green Purchase button to sign up with your FlyerTalk login info). You might want to run each segment rather than origin to destination.

  • AwardAce: Compare Award Redemptions Across Airlines In Seconds

  • AwardHacker: "a tool we build to tell you how to travel with the least miles"

  • Award Nexus: which can search availability but can't determine cost, with FT member free limited use

  • Economical Excursionist's Tools: compare Frequent Flyer Mile Redemptions

  • ExpertFlyer is a common tool used on FT. There is a $99.99 annual fee, monthly fee and five day trial

  • Great Circle Mapper is useful for calculating distance and MPM (Maximum Permitted Mileage)

  • You can try PEX+ (currently in beta), which will even tell you how many miles you'll need, though it draws data from aa.com and S7 so it can't reveal awards that can not be seen on those sites.

  • Travel Codex Award Maximiser commercial blog

Links to other threads of interest:

MileSAAver / SAAver Award Availability - Help, Assistance & Discussion (consolidated)

Help with British Airways / BA surcharge / YQ (AA award on BA, consolidated)

UK APD / Air Passenger Duty charged for UK departures

Award with available segments not bookable? (Married Segment issues)

MileSAAver / SAAver award reduction / scarcity >= Aug 2011 onward (consolidated)

Ticket or Award status: On Request, Pending, Purchased and Ticketed (consolidated)

Link to archived older posts from this thread.

Thanks and a tip of the hat to aktchi, eponymous-coward, guv1976, hillrider, iztok, JonNYC and others who have contributed to this wiki.


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Old Feb 11, 16, 11:55 am
  #1171  
 
Join Date: Nov 2004
Posts: 4,969
Originally Posted by VeryHumerus View Post
I have a quick question. I have an international trip booked from HKG-LAX-SAN-DFW

Could I switch out the LAX-SAN-DFW with LAX-JFK-DFW without a fee change? Is that allowed and is it going over the MPM?
HKG-DFW has a pretty generous MPM of 9742, I think your new routing is under that without even the +25% so this should work.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:07 pm
  #1172  
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I would not be sure that it will be permitted. On top of rules such as complying with published routing rules, AA has a catch all most direct routing rule and changing to a circuitous routing , I would not rely on being permitted as a single award

Also, the MPM is 9742 mi. and this routing is 11,126 mi.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:18 pm
  #1173  
 
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Originally Posted by Dave Noble View Post
I would not be sure that it will be permitted. On top of rules such as complying with published routing rules, AA has a catch all most direct routing rule and changing to a circuitous routing , I would not rely on being permitted as a single award

Also, the MPM is 9742 mi. and this routing is 11,126 mi.
While that is true about not allowing "circuitous", it's probably not correct to say "most direct" is required. I can speak from experience that HKG-ORD is viable for all west coast cities and PDX could even include ORD-PHX-PDX. So I think there's a chance HKG-JFK-DFW would sneak in. I clearly miscalculated the mileage if you are saying it's 11k+ but there is still a chance that squeaks under mpm+25%
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:18 pm
  #1174  
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Question Award backtracking question

Did a brief search and couldn't find anything, so...

So yesterday, for flights later this year for my wife and myself, I was able to book and (I thought) ticket a mainly JL award itinerary SFO(AA F)-ORD(JL)-NRT(JL)-PVG, with ORD-NRT in F and NRT-PVG in J. When I checked online today, I saw a message that I needed to call the reservation center in order to ticket.

Upon calling, the CSR informed me that I couldn't ticket this for 67.5K miles per ticket as planned, but could do so if I tacked on an extra 25K miles for the SFO-ORD F flight. The reason was because this counted as backtracking.

Does anyone know whether this is correct? I realize that there is some language about the most direct routing in the award rules. But how strictly is this usually interpreted?

The reason I asked is that I've ticketed (not just booked) a similar backtracking award itinerary at least once before on AA in the past (involving NRT-JFK-SFO) without any problem, though for reasons unrelated to backtracking had to cancel the trip.

Thanks for any help!

Last edited by Thunderroad; Feb 11, 16 at 12:25 pm
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:23 pm
  #1175  
 
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Originally Posted by Thunderroad View Post
Did a brief search and couldn't find anything, so...

So yesterday, for flights later this year for my wife and myself, I was able to book and (I thought) ticket a mainly JL award itinerary SFO(UA F)-ORD(JL)-NRT(JL)-PVG, with ORD-NRT in F and NRT-PVG in J. When I checked online today, I saw a message that I needed to call the reservation center in order to ticket.

Upon calling, the CSR informed me that I couldn't ticket this for 67.5K miles per ticket as planned, but could do so if I tacked on an extra 25K miles for the SFO-ORD F flight. The reason was because this counted as backtracking.

Does anyone know whether this is correct? I realize that there is some language about the most direct routing in the award rules. But how strictly is this usually interpreted?

The reason I asked is that I've ticketed (not just booked) similar backtracking award tickets a couple of times before on AA in the past (one involving NRT-JFK-SFO and the other SFO-DFW-PVG), though for reasons unrelated to backtracking had to cancel both trips.

Thanks for any help!
I assume that's supposed to be AA for the SFO-ORD segment, not UA?

The general rule is "most direct route" which forbids back-tracking in most situations, however, there should be wiggle room if there is no availability on the most direct route, including if no flights exist.

I would imagine that you could find a more direct route from SFO to PVG, say via LAX or even YVR on CX, but I'll let those who've actually booked something similar chime in.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:26 pm
  #1176  
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I am sure that JonNYC can provide the exact wording, but a direct routing is something that is listed .

LAX-JFK-DFW is pretty circuitous
LAX-DFW : 1,235 mi.
LAX-JFK-DFW : 3 times further at 3866 mi.

There is nothing that says that it is permitted to exceed the MPM by 25% with AA. AA does require that the routing is compliant with the governing airline's fares and exceeding MPM on a paid ticket requires paying extra

I would doubt that this will be permitted without splitting into 2 awards

Last edited by Dave Noble; Feb 11, 16 at 12:33 pm
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:30 pm
  #1177  
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Thanks for the quick reply!

I've corrected the UA/AA thing. Thanks for catching that. I also corrected my post to reflect that fact that, as I recall things more clearly, I only had one prior experience with ticketing a backtracking award itinerary.

As of right now, there is availability on AA in F LAX-PVG for the same date, so I guess I can't make an argument about no other award alternative (if that argument would even hold water).

Any other input is very welcome.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:34 pm
  #1178  
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There absolutely, most definitely and pretty prominentl is listed a "Most direct routing" rule for AAdv awards. Most (or maybe even all) of the time, they let the published revenue fare guidelines take care of things in this area, but, for sure, there is prominent "must use most direct routing" language for AAdv awards.

As to how many awards have ever been vetoed based on this rule (an award that otherwise passes all the "tests" -- published fare routing, etc) that's an open (but not unanswerable) question, will have to leave it at that.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:41 pm
  #1179  
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We will merge this into the award rules thread.

Be aware that awards must:

Not exceed Maximum Permitted Routing (usually 125% of the shortest available routing )

The most significant carrier (often transpac in these instances) must also offer an unreconstructed fare for the same route
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:43 pm
  #1180  
 
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Technically there's no such thing as backtracking when it comes to award rules, although many agents mistakenly quote such a thing when awards won't ticket as a single award. They also make up many other crap reasons in these scenarios that have nothing to do with why it won't actually ticket like you thought.

In this case, the most likely reason is that JL's published fares from SFO-PVG don't allow a connection in ORD. This seems likely considering JL flies SFO-HND nonstop.

If you could find availability on AA metal from ORD-NRT I'm guessing it would probably work, as AA is much more generous in this regard than most partner carriers.

For example, it used to be possible to fly HNL-LAX-JFK-NRT on a single award all on AA metal. When you tried to substitute JL metal on the JFK-NRT segment, it would cause it to reprice as 2 awards.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:49 pm
  #1181  
 
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I suspect that if I had asked whether I could do Chicago to the West Coast you would have said no it will be two tickets. But when I called in I actually found several routings that work as one award (including thru PHX or LAX). JFK-DFW is clearly a greater diversion than what we have, but given the vagaries of the rules, I'd say at least give it a try. What struck me was how I could have a totally different routing approved where I terminated in Portland versus where I terminated in Seattle based on wildly different mpm). And I ultimately got three separate PNR's ticketed so it wasn't like it just slipped through once You'll know immediately because they'll tell you it breaks into two separate awards right away.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 12:59 pm
  #1182  
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Originally Posted by JonNYC View Post
There absolutely, most definitely and pretty prominentl is listed a "Most direct routing" rule for AAdv awards. Most (or maybe even all) of the time, they let the published revenue fare guidelines take care of things in this area, but, for sure, there is prominent "must use most direct routing" language for AAdv awards.

As to how many awards have ever been vetoed based on this rule (an award that otherwise passes all the "tests" -- published fare routing, etc) that's an open (but not unanswerable) question, will have to leave it at that.
Originally Posted by JDiver View Post
We will merge this into the award rules thread.

Be aware that awards must:

Not exceed Maximum Permitted Routing (usually 125% of the shortest available routing )

The most significant carrier (often transpac in these instances) must also offer an unreconstructed fare for the same route
Originally Posted by JJeffrey View Post
Technically there's no such thing as backtracking when it comes to award rules, although many agents mistakenly quote such a thing when awards won't ticket as a single award. They also make up many other crap reasons in these scenarios that have nothing to do with why it won't actually ticket like you thought.

In this case, the most likely reason is that JL's published fares from SFO-PVG don't allow a connection in ORD. This seems likely considering JL flies SFO-HND nonstop.

If you could find availability on AA metal from ORD-NRT I'm guessing it would probably work, as AA is much more generous in this regard than most partner carriers.

For example, it used to be possible to fly HNL-LAX-JFK-NRT on a single award all on AA metal. When you tried to substitute JL metal on the JFK-NRT segment, it would cause it to reprice as 2 awards.
Thanks folks. This helps clarify matters a lot.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 3:20 pm
  #1183  
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Originally Posted by onlysuites View Post
If I search for LHR-DOH-BKK ba.com shows 4 award seats available but individually it only shows 2 seats per flight which is what AA agents can see. Is there any way for them to get the married segment availability?
Can anyone advise on this?
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Old Feb 11, 16, 3:30 pm
  #1184  
 
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Originally Posted by onlysuites View Post
Can anyone advise on this?
Ask them to search the entire route rather than segment by segment. That's worked for me in the past.
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Old Feb 11, 16, 3:32 pm
  #1185  
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Originally Posted by 25milesfromhome View Post
Ask them to search the entire route rather than segment by segment. That's worked for me in the past.
Done that. Even explained to them the married segment rule. Did you face the same issue? Maybe I need to find the right operator.
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