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Understanding the United Upgrade List Comprehensively

Old Feb 7, 17, 11:28 am
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Last edit by: leftysauce
Types of Upgrades

UA's Upgrades overview

UA has multiple methods for upgrading to a higher cabin. Examples include: Economy to Domestic First, Economy to International Business or Business (ex-p.s. flights) or Economy to Premium Economy ("Premium Plus").

In this regard, seating in Economy Plus is considered Economy.

Not all upgrade methods are available on all flights (see table).
  • Complimentary Premier Upgrades (CPU) are available for most North American flights, Central America flights, and some select Oceania flights. "ex-PS" flights (EWR/JFK-SFO/LAX) and Hawaii-EWR, IAD, ORD, IAH, DEN, GUM, MAJ and v.v. are not CPU eligible. CPUs are available for all paid fares and in some cases on award tickets with certain credit cards. A CPU is requested automatically for all elites as long as there is a maximum of one non-Premier as only one companion on the same PNR is also eligible for CPU. CPUs cannot be confirmed until inside the particular window:
Global Services: 120 hours
Premier 1K: 96 hours
Premier Platinum: 72 hours
Premier Gold: 48 hours
Premier Silver: 24 hours
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  • Plus Points (provided to Plats and above) are the upgrade currency of United elites. This wiki of this thread has more details about pricing of various Plus Points upgrades.
  • Mileage Upgrade Awards (MUA) can be requested for all UA flights with a higher cabin on all paid fares. This a varying amount of miles and a $ copay (elites are exempt from the co-pay for CPU eligible flights) -- mileage+copay calculator
    Note the miles and copay are due at time of the request and will be returned if unsuccessful.
  • Instant Upgrades are space available for all elites on Y & B fares for CPU-eligible flights at booking or thereafter. For Platinum and below these require PZ space. For 1Ks and GS, this can be done on Y, B & M fares and requires PN space. These Instant Upgrades, if not cleared at booking, cannot be waitlisted and one must keep checking to see if the instant upgrade space opens up. However, CPUs will process, as discussed above.
  • Paid/cash upgrades are a different mechanism and are only available if confirmable -- no waitlisting. Depending on methods, paid upgrades can clear into almost any fare class. If the class would otherwise be used for upgrades, the cash upsell can show up on the cleared upgrade list.
Plus Points and MUA (also called "miles+cash upgrades") are collectively referred to as instrument-supported upgrades, as they are considered with equal priority once applied. They may also be used on Copa (CM), Lufthansa (LH), and ANA (NH) flights.
Waitlisting for a premium cabin award and all forms of Economy Plus are not considered upgrades.


Upgrade Priority and Required Inventory

All upgrades other than CPU may clear immediately if the required inventory class is available. If you request an upgrade when there is not inventory to confirm your upgrade immediately, you will be added to the upgrade waitlist. The required inventory classes are as follows:

RN class is required for all upgrades to Premium Economy (United Premium Plus)
PN class is required for Instant Upgrades to Business/First from Y, B, and M fares for Premier 1K members, and for all upgrades to Business/First of any type for Global Services members.
PZ class is required for all other upgrades to Business/First except CPUs.

Note: The display of the upgrade lists is rather complicated at the moment. There seems to be more information available than usual, but its accuracy is disputed. The following is how it has historically functioned in terms of public visibility.

Passengers with unconfirmed upgrade requests will be added to the upgrade waitlist. This is not the same as the upgrade standby list which you can see on the Flight Status page. You cannot see this list by any means. The ordering of the upgrade waitlist is as follows:
Fare Class priority is J, C, D, Z, P, O, A, R, Y, B, M, E, U, H, Q, V, W, S, T, L, K, G, N.

Waitlist priority for all flights
  • United Global Services requests
  • PlusPoints upgrades and MileagePlus Upgrade Awards
  • Premier status of the traveler*
  • Fare class
  • Chase United MileagePlus Club cardholders and Presidential Plus cardholders
  • United Corporate Preferred participants
  • United Chase Cardmembers with $25,000 in annual spending
  • Date and time of request



If we haven't confirmed your upgrade by the time you check in for your flight, you will be added to the Upgrades list at check-in, so there's nothing that you need to do after submitting your original request. Our upgrade systems process requests until three hours before flight departure, at which point our gate agents will handle all remaining upgrade requests.

*On flights equipped with United Premium Plus, we will process requests to upgrade to business class for customers ticketed in United Premium Plus (fare classes O, A, R) before processing requests for customers ticketed in economy.

Upgrade priority on United Premium Plus
On aircraft with United Premium Plus, well first process United Polaris business class or United Business waitlists for all members who have purchased United Premium Plus seats, using the same priority order that applies to all upgrades. Well then process waitlists for members with United Economy seats.

New waitlist requests for MileagePlus Upgrade Awards can be made until 24 hours before departure. New waitlist requests for PlusPoints upgrades can be made up until the flight check-in cutoff time.

United will periodically run sweeps from this list. The required inventory class for your upgrade does not need to be available in order to be upgraded from the standby list; passengers on the list will be upgraded at the discretion of United's systems. (You can also think of it as space was opened and then you immediately took it.)

For flights with Premium Plus, those with paid Premium Plus fares will be prioritized above those with paid economy fares even if status is lower. However, GS with paid economy are higher on the list than non-GS customers with paid Premium Plus fares. Therefore, GS with paid Prem Plus, then GS with paid economy, then other Prem Plus pax (1Ks, then Plat, then Gold, etc), then Economy (1Ks, then Plat, then Gold, etc). Not clear if this applies to GS in economy -- certainly not pre-gate waitlist (as they are waitlisted for PN) but unclear what happens at the gate merged waitlist.
How does PlusPoints/GPU/ Mileage Upgrade waitlist for business work with PremiumPlus?

Once check-in starts a new waitlist will be generated for use at the gate. The pre-gate list will continue to process until the flight goes to the gate, typically one to three hours prior to departure. This new list is the visible one on the Flight Status page. Generally they will have the same order, but there can be some differences in priority ordering of the two lists -- usually due to the time tiebreaker -- which is time of request for the pre-gate list and time of check-in (sequence number) for gate list. The visible (upgrade standby) list is not used until the flight is under gate control and the gate agent manually processes an upgrade.

The upgrade list sometimes also shows passengers who have been upgraded. Advance-cleared upgrades will not show on the gate list as cleared -- only passengers who clear after they check in will display with a green checkmark. Some paid Premium Plus fares may show as a confirmed upgrade to Premium Plus.

For both cases, display cleared upgrades will appear in alphabetic order and regardless if checked-in (as long as a seat has been assigned). Uncleared, waitlisted requests will appear in priority order.

Upgrades and Companions
Main article: Comprehensive Companion Upgrade Questions

The following applies ONLY to the invisible upgrade list.

Up to one companion on the same PNR as you is entitled to a CPU based on your status. However, because PNRs must consist only of passengers with the same itinerary, you will only be eligible for an upgrade if all passengers on your PNR have the same upgrade eligibility. For CPUs, you may extend your CPU status to one companion, and then the system will take the status of the lowest passenger on the reservation.

This is a little complicated. Here are some example PNRs:

1K and non-status companion: both are eligible to CPU as 1Ks
1K and two non-status companions: no one is eligible to CPU
1K, Gold, and non-status companion: the companion gets "1K CPU status" but the Gold cannot, so all three pax have Gold priority

The situation for instrument supported upgrades is slightly different. Waitlisting an instrument is also all-or-nothing on the PNR. Either all pax must have a waitlisted upgrade, or none may. If you have a waitlisted upgrade for a multiple passenger PNR, it will have the priority of the highest Premier status on the reservation. Thus:

1K and non-status companion, 2x PlusPoints applied: both are eligible as 1Ks with PlusPoints
1K and three non-status companions, 4x PlusPointsapplied: all four are eligible as 1Ks with PlusPoints

Multi-pax PNR upgrades are all or nothing - you may (or may not) be skipped over if there are fewer available seats than members in your party. If you do not like the treatment of your PNR, you may split it into smaller pieces at any time and be treated as smaller groups or individuals.


Now, what happens if you haven't cleared by check-in?

Multiple pax PNRs are not eligible for the (visible) upgrade standby list. If you wish to be added to the list, you must split the PNR at check-in. This often happens even if you didn't intend to. Note, however, that the hidden list is active until 3 hours before departure and splitting your PNR changes it. Therefore, you may wish to delay check-in until the airport. On the other hand, the tiebreak for the gate list is time of check-in, so you may wish to do so immediately. It depends on your situation.

Companions may be eligible for the upgrade standby list even after splitting the PNR, if it is split at check-in. The behavior of your companion(s) depends on whether the reservation had instruments applied. You may have one CPU companion, who will be waitlisted with your Premier priority but with an effective fare class below X (namely, last). If your companion was on a different PNR originally, or you want to designate a different companion, an airport agent can do that for you. Therefore, the list of 1Ks might be:

1) 1K on an S fare (you)
2) 1K on a K fare
3) Your no-status companion
4) Plat on a B fare

If your reservation had instruments applied, however, this process is different. In this case, if the reservation is auto-split at check-in, all travelers will have your Premier priority with their fare class. Say you are a 1K with three non-status companions, all with GPUs applied. Then you have

1) 1K on a V fare,PlusPoints applied
2..5) you (1K) and your three companions on W fares, ordered by sequence number
6) Plat on a Q fare, miles+cash applied


Frequently Asked Questions

I was #1 on the upgrade list, but someone else got the upgrade instead. What happened?
The most likely answer is that a higher status passenger or fare moved to your flight.

I'm #1 on the upgrade list but seats in the forward cabin keep disappearing. No one is being upgraded. What's going on?
There are two major sources of this. First, once your flight is within 24 hours of departure, it is eligible for SDC. Passengers with paid premium tickets can change to your flight and take seats. Many experienced flyers, especially FT members, underestimate the volatility of flight loads on the day of departure. Additionally, United usually makes a time-of-departure upsell offer available at check-in. Purchasers of this upgrade may often appear similar to last-minute revenue bookings.

I was waitlisted for I (or IN) class and did not clear. Am I now eligible for an upgrade?
"Upgrade" is the wrong terminology. You should be automatically placed on the standy list for business or first (whichever applies). Historically there have been problems with this occurring automatically, but that seems to have mostly been fixed. The exact priority compared to passengers who are waitlisted for an upgrade is unclear and a matter of some dispute. See discussion of GG ONESTANDBY lines 32-55.

Who are these people who are on standby lists for both Business and First?
These are non-revs (i.e., UA employees and family members) - either NRPS (non-rev positive space) or NRSA (non-rev standby). Non-revs can list for any cabin. NRPS are traveling on company business (e.g., deadheading pilots) and will clear into open space ahead of upgraders. NRSA travel standby and will be last in priority after all paid passengers. Why would someone be listed on both standby & upgrade list(s)?
Originally Posted by leftysauce
I want to note the distinction that this only applies to NRPS that book the specific cabin directly (eg. if NRPS are eligible for J, they will clear into J immediately if any J seat is available). Otherwise, if NRPS book a lower cabin, they will be waitlisted after all paid (cash+award) pax but before NRSA for upgrades to higher cabins.
Deadheading Pilots Will Have Upgrade Priority Over Elites
Can you have one companion on a different PNR?
Yes, but only at the airport/gate and some agents are not familiar with the process. They are at the bottom of your status group.

Related threads
Ever see (+X blocked) in booked column on upgrade list?
Consolidated "Waitlist for Award Seats Questions/Issues"
[Consolidated] Chance of upgrade clearing on my flight
Decoding the alphabet soup - fare buckets for UA
Understanding the United Upgrade List Comprehensively [Archive]




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Understanding the United Upgrade List Comprehensively

Old Sep 6, 22, 9:11 pm
  #1621  
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Originally Posted by bmwe92fan
Totally get that for the standby list -- but as the first two flights went out full I figured someone really wanted to be on the flight -- but you are right -- I don't know if they were there or not.... My wife is one of those people that really loves to get on the new time a few days before and was really looking forward to sleeping on this flight -- funny thing is I paid for F on the way down to SJU (wrote my review of the St. Regis for FT) and thought I had a great chance of getting upgraded as there were 8 seats unsold 3 days out -- and we were 1/2 the whole time -- I guess UA really is getting good at monetizing F....
I would generally suspect that someone failed to run the upgrade. I have seen enough GAs mangle the battlefield clearances to think it's more likely than an inop seat, plus you mention they had inventory at J1 until close. However, I looked up the flight status seat map, and it shows all seats occupied, which is more typical of inop seat than GA failure, so maybe that question is still open.

Friendly reminder that with 8 seats unsold 3 days out, if you had pluspoints applied then (I guess that you did, or at least did in the end?), you can call to get it pushed (although maybe you also know that's been apparently turning into an uphill battle sometimes, with phone agents confused). [edit: I see I was very slow to type that and it's already been brought up!]
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Old Sep 6, 22, 9:14 pm
  #1622  
 
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Originally Posted by fumje
I would generally suspect that someone failed to run the upgrade. I have seen enough GAs mangle the battlefield clearances to think it's more likely than an inop seat, plus you mention they had inventory at J1 until close. However, I looked up the flight status seat map, and it shows all seats occupied, which is more typical of inop seat than GA failure, so maybe that question is still open.

Friendly reminder that with 8 seats unsold 3 days out, if you had pluspoints applied then (I guess that you did, or at least did in the end?), you can call to get it pushed (although maybe you also know that's been apparently turning into an uphill battle sometimes, with phone agents confused). [edit: I see I was very slow to type that and it's already been brought up!]
Yes -- I basically had a "Hangover Movie" weekend with the love of my life -- I had PP applied and it looked wide open when we arrived at the STR -- I woke up three days later and not so much.... The only thing worse than not getting the upgrade was the STR bill...
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Old Sep 6, 22, 9:17 pm
  #1623  
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Originally Posted by bmwe92fan
Yes -- I basically had a "Hangover Movie" weekend with the love of my life -- I had PP applied and it looked wide open when we arrived at the STR -- I woke up three days later and not so much.... The only thing worse than not getting the upgrade was the STR bill...
Seems you could've used a lie-flat seat as well.
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Old Sep 6, 22, 9:20 pm
  #1624  
 
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Originally Posted by fumje
Seems you could've used a lie-flat seat as well.
I've been married long enough to know that when there is only one available -- the boss gets it and I beg for a tapas box... And I've also learned that the human body can absorb an amazing amount of Champagne -- and still wake up with my teeth and a spouse -- but without an upgrade....
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Old Sep 6, 22, 9:32 pm
  #1625  
 
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Stand-by lists are often mostly non-revs who can easily get on the list but not show up. Domestically they do not pay a dime in advance and will have checked in on the app but nobody knows if they’re actually in the airport. That’s why there were still seats for sale.
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Old Sep 7, 22, 4:44 pm
  #1626  
 
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Originally Posted by WineCountryUA
That's roughly my understanding of a way to address this issue. There may be other ways.
Getting the individual confirmed on the flight is the magic needed. Not something a newbie agent is going to pull off.
If PZ is available and the IRROPs displaced passengers are going to be #1 & #2 on the upgrade list if they moved to the new flight, but Y=0, is there really any harm rebooking then directly into PZ? Seems a lot less cumbersome then what was described trying to have rev management release space to overbook Y then upgrade.
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Old Sep 7, 22, 4:59 pm
  #1627  
 
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Originally Posted by Lux Flyer
If PZ is available and the IRROPs displaced passengers are going to be #1 & #2 on the upgrade list if they moved to the new flight, but Y=0, is there really any harm rebooking then directly into PZ? Seems a lot less cumbersome then what was described trying to have rev management release space to overbook Y then upgrade.
If PZ is available, the displaced pax is rebooked to PZ directly to the new flight. App will let you do it. No agent involvement is necessary. I recently did it for a colleague. She had LAX-EWR cancelled, which was upgraded with my PlusPoints. She got CPU for EWR-RIC. So, I changed her flights to LAX-ORD-RIC with PZ spaces for both flights.
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Old Sep 7, 22, 6:16 pm
  #1628  
 
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Originally Posted by Kmxu
If PZ is available, the displaced pax is rebooked to PZ directly to the new flight. App will let you do it. No agent involvement is necessary. I recently did it for a colleague. She had LAX-EWR cancelled, which was upgraded with my PlusPoints. She got CPU for EWR-RIC. So, I changed her flights to LAX-ORD-RIC with PZ spaces for both flights.
Different from the situation I envisioned - PZ doesn't even have to be available for the situation you described. Once you've already been upgraded, for an involuntary change they can confirm you in any J booking code as long as your staying on UA.

The situation I was saying, if a customer is booked in Y (hasn't been upgraded), has IRROPS on existing flight, then wants to be rebooked on a different flight, but Y=0. Officially you're supposed to only be rebooked in currently confirmed cabin, so this passenger couldn't be confirmed on the new flight since Y=0. But if PZ was available, and the passenger was going to end up #1 and #2 on the upgrade list, if they were to be rebooked in Y. Doens't it make sense to just rebook them directly into PZ, since it's the same net result? (and prevents further delaying the passengers travel?) And simpler solution than the roundabout way that WineCountry was quoting in the original post I replied to.
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Old Sep 7, 22, 7:31 pm
  #1629  
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Originally Posted by Lux Flyer
If PZ is available and the IRROPs displaced passengers are going to be #1 & #2 on the upgrade list if they moved to the new flight, but Y=0, is there really any harm rebooking then directly into PZ? Seems a lot less cumbersome then what was described trying to have rev management release space to overbook Y then upgrade.
Whether we can envision a simpler. more logical process is not the issue, it is what agents can do today. Apparent the underlying systems prevents the simpler approach. Why -- that is for others to explain, certainty not a level detail I can offer more. Just relating past posts and one personnel experience.

Originally Posted by Kmxu
If PZ is available, the displaced pax is rebooked to PZ directly to the new flight. App will let you do it. No agent involvement is necessary. I recently did it for a colleague. She had LAX-EWR cancelled, which was upgraded with my PlusPoints. She got CPU for EWR-RIC. So, I changed her flights to LAX-ORD-RIC with PZ spaces for both flights.
The displaced passenger was not booked in PZ. What you did has been on and off possible for years -- appears it has returned. There was probably a hidden need for economy space.
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Old Sep 8, 22, 4:11 pm
  #1630  
 
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Flying to HNL from IAH
flight there is nonstop but flight back will have a connecting flight either LAX (36min layover) or SFO (40min layover). The short connecting time makes me nervous for these large and busy airports.

I plan on using PP for my fiancee and I for all segments. If I miss my connecting flight, will my PP upgrade request transfer to the new later flight? Or will I have to request it with the agent I speak to when I have to call after missing the connecting flight?
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Old Sep 8, 22, 4:24 pm
  #1631  
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Originally Posted by LReyes66
Flying to HNL from IAH
flight there is nonstop but flight back will have a connecting flight either LAX (36min layover) or SFO (40min layover). The short connecting time makes me nervous for these large and busy airports.

I plan on using PP for my fiancee and I for all segments. If I miss my connecting flight, will my PP upgrade request transfer to the new later flight? Or will I have to request it with the agent I speak to when I have to call after missing the connecting flight?
If your upgrade cleared, UA's policy would be to re-accommodate you in F. If not, the upgrade request would not transfer to the new flight automatically.

However, the likelihood of clearing on LAX/SFO-IAH is very low anyway.
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Old Sep 8, 22, 5:04 pm
  #1632  
 
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Originally Posted by jsloan
If your upgrade cleared, UA's policy would be to re-accommodate you in F. If not, the upgrade request would not transfer to the new flight automatically.

However, the likelihood of clearing on LAX/SFO-IAH is very low anyway.
I'm looking for alternative flights now with longer layovers. I think I'll have the best chance getting upgraded from lax - iah considering it's a 11:58 red eye flight on a Wednesday. 1k w/ PP should atleast do it. It's HNL to LAX I'd like cleared.
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Old Sep 10, 22, 5:22 am
  #1633  
 
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Boy oh boy am I confused

Hi guys, I hope you can help me figuring this one out.

I am booked on UA 239 (ATL - IAD) later today and sitting at #1 of the CPU list.

The person that was in second position just last night got upgraded, the person now sitting in second position is a non-rev (might be a pilot) so that means my upgrade wont happen even if I was on #1 of their list.

Why was the person after me put in First Class instead of me? Any ideas?

Its a bummer, Ive never been this close (UA Gold) and now its gonna be DOA 😅😩
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Old Sep 10, 22, 6:27 am
  #1634  
 
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Originally Posted by DeltaEchoYankee
Hi guys, I hope you can help me figuring this one out.

I am booked on UA 239 (ATL - IAD) later today and sitting at #1 of the CPU list.

The person that was in second position just last night got upgraded, the person now sitting in second position is a non-rev (might be a pilot) so that means my upgrade wont happen even if I was on #1 of their list.

Why was the person after me put in First Class instead of me? Any ideas?

Its a bummer, Ive never been this close (UA Gold) and now its gonna be DOA 😅😩
Someone might borrow PlusPoints from his/her 1K friend.
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Old Sep 10, 22, 7:28 am
  #1635  
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Originally Posted by DeltaEchoYankee
Hi guys, I hope you can help me figuring this one out.

I am booked on UA 239 (ATL - IAD) later today and sitting at #1 of the CPU list.

The person that was in second position just last night got upgraded, the person now sitting in second position is a non-rev (might be a pilot) so that means my upgrade wont happen even if I was on #1 of their list.

Why was the person after me put in First Class instead of me? Any ideas?

Its a bummer, Ive never been this close (UA Gold) and now its gonna be DOA 😅😩
A couple possibilities:
1. person applied instrument (pluspoints as suggested by Kmxu or miles) with PZ open while you weren't looking
2. person bought a paid upgrade (sometimes this erroneously shows as 'cleared')

However, it looks like the person cancelled or changed to a different flight, as I don't see anyone cleared currently:
https://www.united.com/en/us/flights...-10/ATL/IAD/UA

Good luck! Five hours to go.
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