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USA EMV cards: Availability, Q&A (Chip & PIN -or- Chip & Signature) [2012-2015]

USA EMV cards: Availability, Q&A (Chip & PIN -or- Chip & Signature) [2012-2015]

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Old Jan 15, 16, 11:38 am   -   Wikipost
Please read: This is a community-maintained wiki post containing the most important information from this thread. You may edit the Wiki once you have been on FT for 90 days and have made 90 posts.
 
Last edit by: philemer
Wiki Link
Posts from 1/1/16 onward can be found here: http://www.flyertalk.com/forum/credi...signature.html

EMV wikipost volunteers: kebosabi

What is EMV?
EMV is a defacto global standard of technology where there is a visible microchip on the front of the card. It looks like this:

Who issues them?
See Google Docs spreadsheet in Post #1

SFOAMS also has created a list of excellent webpage that shows US EMV cards in a more interactive interface

Another site, which lets you narrow the search for an EMV card by various parameters, is http://www.spotterswiki.com/emv/index.php.

Several credit unions issue some form of Chip-and-PIN credit cards or prepaid cards. Prepaid EMV cards however are not recommended due to junk fees. USAA (currently restricted to members of military) used to offer Chip-and-PIN cards, but as late has backtracked to Chip-and-Signature priority.

Hey that's a cool Google Docs list! I know others that aren't on that list. How can I help by adding them to the list?
My bad for not putting this into the wiki sooner. Right now, the Google Docs is locked out of editing and only in "read-only" view because there were instances in the past where people would just delete the rows not thinking that it affects others viewing the list.

If you promise not to delete any rows and input all the pertinent info (annual fee, rewards, FTF, etc.), I can provide you with edit access. Just shoot me a PM to kebosabi with your gmail address and I'll provide you edit access.

Thanks for helping out!


As of October 2014, no USA-based card issuer offers Chip-and-PIN priority cards except for BMO Harris (Diners Club) and UN Federal Credit Union. Other major USA-based banks such as BofA, Chase, Citi, as well as others issue Chip-and-Signature cards which may work at many automated kiosks. However, bear in mind the word may is used above is a context where there is no absolute certainty of success for certain environments such as automated kiosks due to different natures of offline and online transactions. It is highly recommended to read Post #3 which lists real life FTer examples on how Chip-and-Signature worked and did not work at various transaction environments.

Can I upgrade it right now?
If it's listed on that Google Docs spreadsheet or SFOAMS' Silk page, wouldn't hurt to call/twitter them for a free upgrade. If you get the response you don't like, hang up, try again.

What is the difference between Chip-and-Signature and Chip-and-PIN?
You insert the chipped card into the slot. The physical contact terminal will read the EMV chip and the terminal will automatically read the preferred cardholder verification methods (called CVM) for that card.

Chip-and-Signature means that the terminal will printout a receipt for you to sign. This is the most prevalent authentication for most US issued EMV cards. Chip-and-Signature helps in a way that it will get through to face-to-face merchant transactions where you and the merchant do not speak the same language.

Chip-and-PIN means that the terminal will prompt you to input a PIN for authentication. Some credit union issued credit cards will have this CVM as secondary if Chip-and-Signature cannot be done. Chip-and-PIN is the more prevalent method of authentication used outside the US, especially in transaction environments where no human interaction is needed (i.e. automated gas pumps, toll roads, train kiosks, etc.).

The Google Docs spreadsheet will list which CVM are used in the EMV cards listed. Some cards can only do Chip-and-Signature. Other cards can do both Chip-and-Signature and Chip-and-PIN. And others might have a third option called No CVM (no authentication needed) which is reserved for low value transactions.

One chip can hold a lot more data, therefore it is capable of doing multiple verification methods. That's one of the great things about EMV over the mag-stripe which can hold very little data.

I want to know for sure what my EMV chip does. Is there anyway I can test out my own EMV card to see what the CVM list is?
alexmt has written up a nice step-by-step procedure on Post #3615.

If most of the EMV cards in the US is the Chip-and-Signature type, doesn't that mean it's still useless abroad?
Depends if you see it as glass half empty or glass half full. See Post #3 for further details on how Chip-and-Signature has worked both successfully and unsuccessfully depending on the merchant transaction environment and use your best judgment whether which one is right for you.

Are there any places in the US that are accepting transactions via the EMV chip?
tmiw has created a dedicated Google maps webpage to show where EMV has been proven to work here: http://emvacceptedhere.com/ Per his Post #4240, feel free to add any places with active EMV terminals if you come across one.

As of 2014/05, the EMV terminals in most Walmarts and Sam's Clubs are being turned on. Hence, the best place to try them out would be your local Walmart or Sam's Club. For other merchants, it's slowly being phased in.

I hope people will post them in the Post your receipt of your 1st EMV based transaction in the US thread. cvarming has shown us an EMV transaction receipt from Brooklyn, NY in Post #2380. I myself had my first EMV based (Chip-and-Signature) transaction in two stores in the Los Angeles area, as shown in detail in Post #2705 (courtesy of WhatWhatTech for pointing these two stores out)

I don't want a chip in my card. I heard horror stories all over the media saying hackers can steal my credit card info from a mile away.
There are two types of chips. One is contactless and the other is contact. Cards can be either one or the other, or both.

In the Google Docs spreadsheet, the cards that are capable of contactless payments are listed seperately under the "RFID or NFC contactless chip" column. If it says yes, then that means it has the ability to do contactless payments. If it says no, it doesn't have that feature.

The one that the media has overhyped about hackers "stealing your information wirelessly" was the contactless type like this:

You are worried about this happening, right?

You don't have to worry. EMV is a chip standard that can have both contact and contactless interfaces. With the traditional contact interface, this means you actually have to physically insert the chip into a POS terminal for it to be authorized, like this:

With the contact interface, nothing is wireless. No data is sent out in a stand-alone contact type EMV chip. With the EMV contactless interface, data is sent wirelessly.

Furthermore, contactless chip cards are required to show a symbol (looks like Wi-Fi symbol) somewhere on the card that to denote it's capability as a contactless card. For example, here's an example of a Discover Card with contactless capability (in which Discover calls "Discover ZIP") showing the contactless symbol on the back of the card:

Don't believe everything that the media says. Besides, millions of people all over the world from London to Singapore, uses contactless payments daily in extremely crowded subways and mass transit with nary any problems. There are multiple layers of encrypted securities and keys that are needed to break the code.

Frankly, giving your physical card to a waiter/waitress who takes the card out of your view is much more susceptible to fraud than contactless payments.

Why should I care?
If you are an international traveler, you will want this because majority of the world has or in the process of converting to this payment format.


In fact, in 2012, even North Korea moved to the EMV format, leaving the US as one of the countries in the world that hasn't done so.

In addition, VISA, MC, AMEX, and Discover have all agreed to incentivize the USA shifting to EMV payments by 2015 by shifting liability for fraudulent transactions to merchants if they do not have EMV equipment and the cardholder has an EMV card. So if you travel internationally or would like to get one before the others, you might be interested in getting one.


BS! I had no problems using my card in [insert whereever country], [insert whatever point in time]
If you stick to the tourist path where they have lots of visitors from the US, you should have no problems using your mag-stripe only card in hotels and restaurants, at least for now. But as things can change as things go forward.

However, consider that once you start taking the off-beaten path, go to non-touristy places where they are not familiar with mag-stripes, rent a car and use toll roads, fill up gas, or try to buy train tickets you might end up into a trouble of the machine not recognizing your card because it lacks the chip. Furthermore, a lot of toll roads, gas pumps, and automated ticket machines lack any human assistance to help you when you need it the most.

But [insert credit card company] told me all merchants that display their logo must accept them! All I have to do is report them for violating their agreements, right?
There are several factors against this.

1. You can only speak English. The merchant representative, most likely a part-time clerk earning minimum wage, speaks in a different language, let's say French. If you have no French language skills, how are you going to get your point across? Are you going to whip out your cell phone at exorbitant int'l roaming charges and hope the customer service is going to translate it for you on the spot? Or maybe you might actually know French. But how about Swahili, Farsi, Balinese, or the multiple languages in mainland China?

2. Just like US, the rest of the world's businesses uses part-time minimum wage workers as cashiers to cut down on labor costs. Most of their SOP training manuals are written by MBA types to not to do anything they are not familiar with. Do not expect them to understand the intricate details of credit card mumbo jumbo. You don't expect Taco Bell employees to understand the minute details of Discover-JCB-Union Pay agreements, right? Same thing the other way around: be respectful as a guest in their country, prepare in advance in their ways, avoid being an "ugly American" stereotype.

3. You are a guest in their country. You are a minority. If 99.9% of their country's people and other tourists from around the world uses EMV, do you really think they are going to accomodate the 0.1% of American tourists who only have mag-stripes credit cards?

4. Again, you are a guest in their country. How would you, as an American standing in line, react if a Chinese tourist was clogging up the lines at a local Taco Bell because the clerk doesn't understand the Discover-Union Pay agreement and has trouble communicating between Mandarin spoken by the tourist and English spoken by the Taco Bell clerk? Same way the other way around. You do not want to clog up the lines for everyone. The less hassle, the better.

5. VISA and MC make tons of money from merchants in that country. Say SNCF French Rail. It's a billion dollar company in France. Do you think VISA is going to pull the plug of their relationship with SNCF because SNCF refuses to do mag-stripe processing at their unmanned train station kiosk? Of course not. Be realistic.

6. And lastly, if you're up against an unstaffed toll kiosk, gas pump or train ticket machine, are you going to yell curses at the machine?

But I want my credit card to be able to be used in the US too!
No worries. They have not gotten rid of the mag-stripe on the back of the card for backward compatibility reasons, just like we still have embossed numbers on our cards for backwards compatibility to using those old carbon copy imprinters.

[insert own Hyatt card image front and back together with red arrows pointing to all the backward compatibility features]

You use the chip on the front of the card abroad (for now), and the mag-stripe just like any other card for the US. Basically, you're increasing your credit card's acceptance rate by getting a card that both via the chip and the mag-stripe. You're getting a better deal for free.

And when 2015 comes along and US switches to EMV, you'll be way ahead of everyone else too!


So why did the rest of the world and the US moved/moving toward EMV?
Primarily, due to fraud concerns. You see, the mag-stripe has been with us since the 1950s. It may have been the most high tech thing back in the day, but with the technology that is available today, any shmo can pick up a $100 USB magnetic card skimming device off of eBay and get your credit card info.

And unlike skimming off contactless cards which actually need the person to have l33t programming skills, skimming off a magnetic stripe has become so ubiquitous that nary a day goes about skimming fraud going on somewhere in America, from gas pumps, Michael's stores (2011), Target breaches (2013), restaurant waiters/waitresses, to even McDonald's drive thrus.

https://www.google.com/search?q=skimming+fraud

These type of fraud used to be prevalent in Europe. But once they started switching over to EMV starting over 2 decades ago, this type of fraud went elsewhere. It went over to Asia, Canada and Mexico, Latin America, etc. etc. until they too began implementing EMV to combat skimming fraud. The US is practically the only country left that hasn't done so, therefore all the fraud that used to take place elsewhere is now happening here.


But EMV is old and it's not fool proof. Shouldn't we just skip over it and do something new instead?
Yes, EMV is old. It was developed in the 1990s and its smart card payment predecessor was first introduced in France. But as of today, it has become the defacto global standard of payments.

But then, what else is there? There is no other de facto global standard of payments alternative. For example, if we decide to skip over it and do something new, hypothetically like DNA matching technology, it still means US int'l travelers will continue to have problems abroad with useless plastic acceptance because no other country is using this DNA matching technology except the US.

Besides, nothing is fool proof. You can say that the bank vault isn't fool proof because you can crack it open if enough C4 is used. But your average low-life scumbag isn't likely to get military grade C4 easily either. But the bank vault does make it harder to get the bank's money over say a petty cash box. That's the point here. EMV is akin to a security tight bank vault, the old mag-stripe is akin to a petty cash box lying around inside the drawer.


I'm a business owner and I don't think EMV is going to take off. I'm not going to spend extra hundreds of dollars to upgrade my credit card machine. Convince me other wise why I should.
I can understand the added extra cost to your business once this switchover takes place. But before even saying that, look at your existing POS terminal. Does it have a slot somewhere to insert a card?

Most likely, if you had replaced your POS terminal within the past five years, you already have an EMV capable terminal. EMV is basically just not turned on yet from the processor and acquirer side.

If you have an EMV capable terminal, then a best bet would be to contact your acquirer to have the EMV feature turned on. You did your end of the deal already by having an EMV capable terminal, it is now the acquirers' responsibility to turn it on in accordance to the EMV switchover mandate.

And if you don't, you are going to replace your POS terminal anyway from common wear and tear. It isn't a hard switch-over. You can continue to use your POS terminal until it dies out because EMV cardholders will still have the mag-stripe on the back. And by the time your non-EMV capable POS terminal is up for replacement the market will be full with these newer POS terminals that can accept the mag-stripe, EMV, as well as contactless payments.

In addition, you may also want to check with your acquirer or processor about EMV capable terminals. Some of them are willing to replace your terminal for free in preparation for the US EMV switchover. Call and ask for details.


But what's in it for me? I'm the one that has to pay for the upgrade.
All the major card networks have given incentives for merchants for the upcoming EMV switchover.

If 75% or more of your credit card transactions are done on an EMV contact and contactless terminal, they are going to waive your annual PCI-DSS fees, which usually costs you around $5.00-$19.95/month per terminal. The overall long term cost savings of those compliance fees will be larger than the cost of an one time upgrade for the terminal.

The downside is that once EMV switchover happens and if you do not have a POS terminal that is able to accept EMV, the fraud liability shifts over to the merchant.

I own several fast food franchises. If I upgrade my POS terminals at all of my restaurants, it's going to cost me thousands, if not millions. I don't think anyone is going to use a fake credit card to buy $5 burgers. And if they do, wouldn't it be cheaper for me to eat the fraud cost?
Remember also that fraud isn't just committed by dishonest customers using fraudulent cards. Fraud can also happen with dishonest employees skimming off credit card data from the mag-stripe as in the case of a teenage McDonald's drive thru employee skimming off $13,000 of customers' credit cards in Olympia, WA. Consider the public relations fall out that your business may have if this happens (i.e. the big Target breach of 2013, where someone used a mag stripe card to load malware INTO Target's system). Is it worth risking to take such a huge PR disaster?
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Old Mar 13, 15, 6:46 pm
  #10231  
 
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Originally Posted by tmiw View Post
Interesting, a MasterCard that doesn't support offline PIN. HSBC's wording does make sense if they're assuming that online PIN will never be supported in the US by anyone.
I'm puzzled. Since signature is CVM #2 and online pin is CVM #3, HSBC's statement that pin is much more requested than signature outside the US doesn't jive with that CVM order. Doesn't that order mean that signature will be requested everywhere except unmanned terminals (which are obviously much less of the terminal population than manned terminals)?
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Old Mar 13, 15, 7:49 pm
  #10232  
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Originally Posted by uds0 View Post
I'm puzzled. Since signature is CVM #2 and online pin is CVM #3, HSBC's statement that pin is much more requested than signature outside the US doesn't jive with that CVM order. Doesn't that order mean that signature will be requested everywhere except unmanned terminals (which are obviously much less of the terminal population than manned terminals)?
From the perspective of the average American, having kiosks ask for a PIN for credit cards would probably be "much more often" than they're used to. This is assuming that US kiosks that aren't gas pumps don't eventually end up getting PIN pads, of course.
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Old Mar 13, 15, 7:57 pm
  #10233  
 
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Capital One buys US HSBC Credit Card business 9/12/14

Originally Posted by uds0 View Post
Here is HSBC pin usage language:

"It is very common during purchases in countries outside of the United States for retailers to request customers to provide their PIN. Because PIN-verified transactions are so prevalent in countries outside of the United States, it is essential to know your PIN when traveling internationally. Please note that for most purchases in the United States, you will only be asked to provide your signature."

It seems that they might actually act differently (signature priority in US, pin abroad)?

Seems like a potentially nice product with no AF or FTF and lots of presence in Europe:

https://www.us.hsbc.com/1/2/home/per...num-mc/details

Their online application may be a bit complicated.
To add uncertainty, I found this:

http://www.mybanktracker.com/news/20...-credit-cards/

Since Capital One has NO chip cards yet and I am unaware of any time line to implement them, I am wondering how their takeover of HSBC US credit cards might affect that business. My initial call to HSBC (required to even apply for a card) had 20 minute hold with a likely offshore rep with a thick Indian accent. Doesn't Capital One use offshore too? That rep confirmed that a chip enabled terminal will prioritize asking for a pin over signature. The 2nd "survey" call was also on hold about 15 minutes and probably also answered by an offshore rep, fortunately much less accent. She confirmed that the pin would be asked for even if signature was available, and that the reason for the "in US signature will always be requested" language was that there was a [reasonable] assumption that the US had few chip enabled readers and thus a mag swipe would be virtually always required and result in a signature request.

Oddly, she then told me that calling the phone number listed on the web site for new apps could not be used because I wasn't a HSBC existing customer, despite it being listed under the heading "For new customer". Instead, clicking a button for a call back (return call promised within 1 business day) is required to reach the "special team" that handles new accounts. So, I posted a callback request while I try that same number in the morning for a 3rd "survey" and attempt to get a unanimous vote on pin priority and an application. I wouldn't mind getting this card for my 5 week trip in Europe departing in a few weeks so that I can report on it's actual behavior. I noticed a lot of HSBC ATMs throughout Europe, and I hope that Capital One acquiring their US assets doesn't mess with being able to use HSBC services abroad.

Really too bad that the banks provide their reps with such unreliable, or at least incomplete, training.
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Old Mar 13, 15, 8:04 pm
  #10234  
 
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My visit today to the local First Tech branch to advise the rep who signed me up for the pin-less chip card Visa resulted in her being quite visibly dismayed that she was clearly misinformed, She was also very concerned about the effort we both took because of that lack of accurate info from her internal resources. She even asked that I provide her with the MC rollout EMV expert name so she could assure that the correct and complete info finally got distributed to that branch and hopefully to the web site and other reps. She mentioned that he was quite high up in the business structure.

I wanted to mention this experience since it such an exception to my past experiences with bank folks and a good reflection of how they do business - at least here.

(The yummy free cookies were a nice perk too!)
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Old Mar 13, 15, 8:06 pm
  #10235  
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Originally Posted by uds0 View Post
To add uncertainty, I found this:

http://www.mybanktracker.com/news/20...-credit-cards/

Since Capital One has NO chip cards yet and I am unaware of any time line to implement them, I am wondering how their takeover of HSBC US credit cards might affect that business. My initial call to HSBC (required to even apply for a card) had 20 minute hold with a likely offshore rep with a thick Indian accent. Doesn't Capital One use offshore too? That rep confirmed that a chip enabled terminal will prioritize asking for a pin over signature. The 2nd "survey" call was also on hold about 15 minutes and probably also answered by an offshore rep, fortunately much less accent. She confirmed that the pin would be asked for even if signature was available, and that the reason for the "in US signature will always be requested" language was that there was a [reasonable] assumption that the US had few chip enabled readers and thus a mag swipe would be virtually always required and result in a signature request.

Oddly, she then told me that calling the phone number listed on the web site for new apps could not be used because I wasn't a HSBC existing customer, despite it being listed under the heading "For new customer". Instead, clicking a button for a call back (return call promised within 1 business day) is required to reach the "special team" that handles new accounts. So, I posted a callback request while I try that same number in the morning for a 3rd "survey" and attempt to get a unanimous vote on pin priority and an application. I wouldn't mind getting this card for my 5 week trip in Europe departing in a few weeks so that I can report on it's actual behavior. I noticed a lot of HSBC ATMs throughout Europe, and I hope that Capital One acquiring their US assets doesn't mess with being able to use HSBC services abroad.

Really too bad that the banks provide their reps with such unreliable, or at least incomplete, training.
Doesn't Capital One's ownership of HSBC's card business not bode well for PIN priority long term? They're another card company who's very pro signature.
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Old Mar 13, 15, 8:19 pm
  #10236  
 
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Originally Posted by tmiw View Post
From the perspective of the average American, having kiosks ask for a PIN for credit cards would probably be "much more often" than they're used to. This is assuming that US kiosks that aren't gas pumps don't eventually end up getting PIN pads, of course.
Maybe, and HSBC's statement about pin being predominantly used when abroad makes no mention of: at kiosks and other unmanned stations only, and specifically talks about abroad retailers asking for pin most of the time, so unmanned doesn't seem to be what their talking about.
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Old Mar 13, 15, 8:27 pm
  #10237  
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Originally Posted by uds0 View Post
Maybe, and HSBC's statement about pin being predominantly used when abroad makes no mention of: at kiosks and other unmanned stations only, and specifically talks about abroad retailers asking for pin most of the time, so unmanned doesn't seem to be what their talking about.
Sounds like it's chip and signature except at kiosks to me:

Chip cards contain an encrypted microchip which is difficult to duplicate and provides greater protection against fraudulent purchases than traditional magstripe credit cards. When using a security chip-enabled
credit card you may be asked to enter your Personal Identification Number (PIN) for certain transactions at chip-enabled terminals.
BTW, @ChaseSupport does not have a database of EMV enabled businesses available either. (I had originally tweeted @Chase, not @ChaseSupport.)
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Old Mar 13, 15, 8:37 pm
  #10238  
 
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Originally Posted by tmiw View Post
Sounds like it's chip and signature except at kiosks to me:

BTW, @ChaseSupport does not have a database of EMV enabled businesses available either. (I had originally tweeted @Chase, not @ChaseSupport.)
What a bunch of double-talk!

BTW, I added the Bridge City Coffee Shop (actually more of a sandwich/salad place) in Portland OR as the ONLY chip terminal reported within 5 miles of downtown in a city of over a million people! Walmarts are in the burbs.
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Old Mar 13, 15, 8:53 pm
  #10239  
 
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Originally Posted by uds0 View Post
Since Capital One has NO chip cards yet and I am unaware of any time line to implement them, I am wondering how their takeover of HSBC US credit cards might affect that business.
As it happens, I just got the replacement Platinum Mastercard in the mail a few weeks ago to replace my former HSBC-issued Discover card, and it's chip-and-sig. The brochure included this URL, which would seem to answer the question of CapOne's timeline: http://www.capitalone.com/credit-cards/chip-cards/

3. When will Capital One have chip cards?

We are beginning to issue chip cards now and expect to include the chip on most of our cards by the end of 2015. If you currently have a Capital One credit card, continue using it until you receive your new chip card.
Elsewhere on the rollout front, I also received a replacement Chase Slate VISA card in the past couple of weeks, and it's chip-and-sig w/o PIN. It's the first one I've gotten so far with a giant European-style 8-contact EMV chip instead of a 6-contact one.
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Old Mar 13, 15, 9:36 pm
  #10240  
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Is there any difference between a “Chip and PIN” card and a “Chip and Signature” card?
Both Chip and PIN and Chip and Signature cards offer better fraud protection than traditional magnetic stripe cards. The only difference is that the Chip and PIN card requires you to enter a PIN at checkout while the Chip and Signature card only requires your signature. Good news! Capital One chip cards will be Chip and Signature cards, so there’s no additional PIN to remember.

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Old Mar 13, 15, 9:42 pm
  #10241  
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I had my very first US chip and pin transaction - at Walmart. Thrilled to see a chip and pin in action. I could not upload the image, but the AID is
A0000000031010
*Pin verified
Validation XGFV
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Old Mar 13, 15, 10:41 pm
  #10242  
 
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Originally Posted by tmiw View Post
Interesting, a MasterCard that doesn't support offline PIN. HSBC's wording does make sense if they're assuming that online PIN will never be supported in the US by anyone.
Bank of America and Citi MasterCards also support online, but not offline, PIN.
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Old Mar 13, 15, 10:49 pm
  #10243  
 
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Originally Posted by uds0 View Post
Since Capital One has NO chip cards yet and I am unaware of any time line to implement them, I am wondering how their takeover of HSBC US credit cards might affect that business.
CapitalOne began issuing EMV versions of Venture and VentureOne a few months ago. The cards have a new design (no more shiny gold VentureOne) with the card number and Visa logos on the back. People reported being unable to request an EMV replacement card, they were just sending out new cards on their own schedule (but not waiting for existing cards to expire either). They're Chip and Signature with no PIN support. I haven't heard of any non-Venture family CapOne cards in the US getting chips, and the card graphics on their web site show chips only on the Venture family cards.
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Old Mar 13, 15, 10:51 pm
  #10244  
 
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I was at a shop today with an FD130 that had EMV disabled (or wasn't enforcing the service code). I was quite surprised, as I thought these were all enabled and enforcing!
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Old Mar 13, 15, 11:05 pm
  #10245  
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Originally Posted by Hawaiian717 View Post
Bank of America and Citi MasterCards also support online, but not offline, PIN.
The way BoA tells it, there's no PIN backup at all on any of its credit cards. I wonder if they've gotten any complaints about a PIN prompt unexpectedly appearing on a kiosk.
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