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USA EMV cards: Availability, Q&A (Chip & PIN -or- Chip & Signature) [2012-2015]

USA EMV cards: Availability, Q&A (Chip & PIN -or- Chip & Signature) [2012-2015]

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Old Jan 15, 16, 11:38 am   -   Wikipost
Please read: This is a community-maintained wiki post containing the most important information from this thread. You may edit the Wiki once you have been on FT for 90 days and have made 90 posts.
 
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Wiki Link
Posts from 1/1/16 onward can be found here: http://www.flyertalk.com/forum/credi...signature.html

EMV wikipost volunteers: kebosabi

What is EMV?
EMV is a defacto global standard of technology where there is a visible microchip on the front of the card. It looks like this:

Who issues them?
See Google Docs spreadsheet in Post #1

SFOAMS also has created a list of excellent webpage that shows US EMV cards in a more interactive interface

Another site, which lets you narrow the search for an EMV card by various parameters, is http://www.spotterswiki.com/emv/index.php.

Several credit unions issue some form of Chip-and-PIN credit cards or prepaid cards. Prepaid EMV cards however are not recommended due to junk fees. USAA (currently restricted to members of military) used to offer Chip-and-PIN cards, but as late has backtracked to Chip-and-Signature priority.

Hey that's a cool Google Docs list! I know others that aren't on that list. How can I help by adding them to the list?
My bad for not putting this into the wiki sooner. Right now, the Google Docs is locked out of editing and only in "read-only" view because there were instances in the past where people would just delete the rows not thinking that it affects others viewing the list.

If you promise not to delete any rows and input all the pertinent info (annual fee, rewards, FTF, etc.), I can provide you with edit access. Just shoot me a PM to kebosabi with your gmail address and I'll provide you edit access.

Thanks for helping out!


As of October 2014, no USA-based card issuer offers Chip-and-PIN priority cards except for BMO Harris (Diners Club) and UN Federal Credit Union. Other major USA-based banks such as BofA, Chase, Citi, as well as others issue Chip-and-Signature cards which may work at many automated kiosks. However, bear in mind the word may is used above is a context where there is no absolute certainty of success for certain environments such as automated kiosks due to different natures of offline and online transactions. It is highly recommended to read Post #3 which lists real life FTer examples on how Chip-and-Signature worked and did not work at various transaction environments.

Can I upgrade it right now?
If it's listed on that Google Docs spreadsheet or SFOAMS' Silk page, wouldn't hurt to call/twitter them for a free upgrade. If you get the response you don't like, hang up, try again.

What is the difference between Chip-and-Signature and Chip-and-PIN?
You insert the chipped card into the slot. The physical contact terminal will read the EMV chip and the terminal will automatically read the preferred cardholder verification methods (called CVM) for that card.

Chip-and-Signature means that the terminal will printout a receipt for you to sign. This is the most prevalent authentication for most US issued EMV cards. Chip-and-Signature helps in a way that it will get through to face-to-face merchant transactions where you and the merchant do not speak the same language.

Chip-and-PIN means that the terminal will prompt you to input a PIN for authentication. Some credit union issued credit cards will have this CVM as secondary if Chip-and-Signature cannot be done. Chip-and-PIN is the more prevalent method of authentication used outside the US, especially in transaction environments where no human interaction is needed (i.e. automated gas pumps, toll roads, train kiosks, etc.).

The Google Docs spreadsheet will list which CVM are used in the EMV cards listed. Some cards can only do Chip-and-Signature. Other cards can do both Chip-and-Signature and Chip-and-PIN. And others might have a third option called No CVM (no authentication needed) which is reserved for low value transactions.

One chip can hold a lot more data, therefore it is capable of doing multiple verification methods. That's one of the great things about EMV over the mag-stripe which can hold very little data.

I want to know for sure what my EMV chip does. Is there anyway I can test out my own EMV card to see what the CVM list is?
alexmt has written up a nice step-by-step procedure on Post #3615.

If most of the EMV cards in the US is the Chip-and-Signature type, doesn't that mean it's still useless abroad?
Depends if you see it as glass half empty or glass half full. See Post #3 for further details on how Chip-and-Signature has worked both successfully and unsuccessfully depending on the merchant transaction environment and use your best judgment whether which one is right for you.

Are there any places in the US that are accepting transactions via the EMV chip?
tmiw has created a dedicated Google maps webpage to show where EMV has been proven to work here: http://emvacceptedhere.com/ Per his Post #4240, feel free to add any places with active EMV terminals if you come across one.

As of 2014/05, the EMV terminals in most Walmarts and Sam's Clubs are being turned on. Hence, the best place to try them out would be your local Walmart or Sam's Club. For other merchants, it's slowly being phased in.

I hope people will post them in the Post your receipt of your 1st EMV based transaction in the US thread. cvarming has shown us an EMV transaction receipt from Brooklyn, NY in Post #2380. I myself had my first EMV based (Chip-and-Signature) transaction in two stores in the Los Angeles area, as shown in detail in Post #2705 (courtesy of WhatWhatTech for pointing these two stores out)

I don't want a chip in my card. I heard horror stories all over the media saying hackers can steal my credit card info from a mile away.
There are two types of chips. One is contactless and the other is contact. Cards can be either one or the other, or both.

In the Google Docs spreadsheet, the cards that are capable of contactless payments are listed seperately under the "RFID or NFC contactless chip" column. If it says yes, then that means it has the ability to do contactless payments. If it says no, it doesn't have that feature.

The one that the media has overhyped about hackers "stealing your information wirelessly" was the contactless type like this:

You are worried about this happening, right?

You don't have to worry. EMV is a chip standard that can have both contact and contactless interfaces. With the traditional contact interface, this means you actually have to physically insert the chip into a POS terminal for it to be authorized, like this:

With the contact interface, nothing is wireless. No data is sent out in a stand-alone contact type EMV chip. With the EMV contactless interface, data is sent wirelessly.

Furthermore, contactless chip cards are required to show a symbol (looks like Wi-Fi symbol) somewhere on the card that to denote it's capability as a contactless card. For example, here's an example of a Discover Card with contactless capability (in which Discover calls "Discover ZIP") showing the contactless symbol on the back of the card:

Don't believe everything that the media says. Besides, millions of people all over the world from London to Singapore, uses contactless payments daily in extremely crowded subways and mass transit with nary any problems. There are multiple layers of encrypted securities and keys that are needed to break the code.

Frankly, giving your physical card to a waiter/waitress who takes the card out of your view is much more susceptible to fraud than contactless payments.

Why should I care?
If you are an international traveler, you will want this because majority of the world has or in the process of converting to this payment format.


In fact, in 2012, even North Korea moved to the EMV format, leaving the US as one of the countries in the world that hasn't done so.

In addition, VISA, MC, AMEX, and Discover have all agreed to incentivize the USA shifting to EMV payments by 2015 by shifting liability for fraudulent transactions to merchants if they do not have EMV equipment and the cardholder has an EMV card. So if you travel internationally or would like to get one before the others, you might be interested in getting one.


BS! I had no problems using my card in [insert whereever country], [insert whatever point in time]
If you stick to the tourist path where they have lots of visitors from the US, you should have no problems using your mag-stripe only card in hotels and restaurants, at least for now. But as things can change as things go forward.

However, consider that once you start taking the off-beaten path, go to non-touristy places where they are not familiar with mag-stripes, rent a car and use toll roads, fill up gas, or try to buy train tickets you might end up into a trouble of the machine not recognizing your card because it lacks the chip. Furthermore, a lot of toll roads, gas pumps, and automated ticket machines lack any human assistance to help you when you need it the most.

But [insert credit card company] told me all merchants that display their logo must accept them! All I have to do is report them for violating their agreements, right?
There are several factors against this.

1. You can only speak English. The merchant representative, most likely a part-time clerk earning minimum wage, speaks in a different language, let's say French. If you have no French language skills, how are you going to get your point across? Are you going to whip out your cell phone at exorbitant int'l roaming charges and hope the customer service is going to translate it for you on the spot? Or maybe you might actually know French. But how about Swahili, Farsi, Balinese, or the multiple languages in mainland China?

2. Just like US, the rest of the world's businesses uses part-time minimum wage workers as cashiers to cut down on labor costs. Most of their SOP training manuals are written by MBA types to not to do anything they are not familiar with. Do not expect them to understand the intricate details of credit card mumbo jumbo. You don't expect Taco Bell employees to understand the minute details of Discover-JCB-Union Pay agreements, right? Same thing the other way around: be respectful as a guest in their country, prepare in advance in their ways, avoid being an "ugly American" stereotype.

3. You are a guest in their country. You are a minority. If 99.9% of their country's people and other tourists from around the world uses EMV, do you really think they are going to accomodate the 0.1% of American tourists who only have mag-stripes credit cards?

4. Again, you are a guest in their country. How would you, as an American standing in line, react if a Chinese tourist was clogging up the lines at a local Taco Bell because the clerk doesn't understand the Discover-Union Pay agreement and has trouble communicating between Mandarin spoken by the tourist and English spoken by the Taco Bell clerk? Same way the other way around. You do not want to clog up the lines for everyone. The less hassle, the better.

5. VISA and MC make tons of money from merchants in that country. Say SNCF French Rail. It's a billion dollar company in France. Do you think VISA is going to pull the plug of their relationship with SNCF because SNCF refuses to do mag-stripe processing at their unmanned train station kiosk? Of course not. Be realistic.

6. And lastly, if you're up against an unstaffed toll kiosk, gas pump or train ticket machine, are you going to yell curses at the machine?

But I want my credit card to be able to be used in the US too!
No worries. They have not gotten rid of the mag-stripe on the back of the card for backward compatibility reasons, just like we still have embossed numbers on our cards for backwards compatibility to using those old carbon copy imprinters.

[insert own Hyatt card image front and back together with red arrows pointing to all the backward compatibility features]

You use the chip on the front of the card abroad (for now), and the mag-stripe just like any other card for the US. Basically, you're increasing your credit card's acceptance rate by getting a card that both via the chip and the mag-stripe. You're getting a better deal for free.

And when 2015 comes along and US switches to EMV, you'll be way ahead of everyone else too!


So why did the rest of the world and the US moved/moving toward EMV?
Primarily, due to fraud concerns. You see, the mag-stripe has been with us since the 1950s. It may have been the most high tech thing back in the day, but with the technology that is available today, any shmo can pick up a $100 USB magnetic card skimming device off of eBay and get your credit card info.

And unlike skimming off contactless cards which actually need the person to have l33t programming skills, skimming off a magnetic stripe has become so ubiquitous that nary a day goes about skimming fraud going on somewhere in America, from gas pumps, Michael's stores (2011), Target breaches (2013), restaurant waiters/waitresses, to even McDonald's drive thrus.

https://www.google.com/search?q=skimming+fraud

These type of fraud used to be prevalent in Europe. But once they started switching over to EMV starting over 2 decades ago, this type of fraud went elsewhere. It went over to Asia, Canada and Mexico, Latin America, etc. etc. until they too began implementing EMV to combat skimming fraud. The US is practically the only country left that hasn't done so, therefore all the fraud that used to take place elsewhere is now happening here.


But EMV is old and it's not fool proof. Shouldn't we just skip over it and do something new instead?
Yes, EMV is old. It was developed in the 1990s and its smart card payment predecessor was first introduced in France. But as of today, it has become the defacto global standard of payments.

But then, what else is there? There is no other de facto global standard of payments alternative. For example, if we decide to skip over it and do something new, hypothetically like DNA matching technology, it still means US int'l travelers will continue to have problems abroad with useless plastic acceptance because no other country is using this DNA matching technology except the US.

Besides, nothing is fool proof. You can say that the bank vault isn't fool proof because you can crack it open if enough C4 is used. But your average low-life scumbag isn't likely to get military grade C4 easily either. But the bank vault does make it harder to get the bank's money over say a petty cash box. That's the point here. EMV is akin to a security tight bank vault, the old mag-stripe is akin to a petty cash box lying around inside the drawer.


I'm a business owner and I don't think EMV is going to take off. I'm not going to spend extra hundreds of dollars to upgrade my credit card machine. Convince me other wise why I should.
I can understand the added extra cost to your business once this switchover takes place. But before even saying that, look at your existing POS terminal. Does it have a slot somewhere to insert a card?

Most likely, if you had replaced your POS terminal within the past five years, you already have an EMV capable terminal. EMV is basically just not turned on yet from the processor and acquirer side.

If you have an EMV capable terminal, then a best bet would be to contact your acquirer to have the EMV feature turned on. You did your end of the deal already by having an EMV capable terminal, it is now the acquirers' responsibility to turn it on in accordance to the EMV switchover mandate.

And if you don't, you are going to replace your POS terminal anyway from common wear and tear. It isn't a hard switch-over. You can continue to use your POS terminal until it dies out because EMV cardholders will still have the mag-stripe on the back. And by the time your non-EMV capable POS terminal is up for replacement the market will be full with these newer POS terminals that can accept the mag-stripe, EMV, as well as contactless payments.

In addition, you may also want to check with your acquirer or processor about EMV capable terminals. Some of them are willing to replace your terminal for free in preparation for the US EMV switchover. Call and ask for details.


But what's in it for me? I'm the one that has to pay for the upgrade.
All the major card networks have given incentives for merchants for the upcoming EMV switchover.

If 75% or more of your credit card transactions are done on an EMV contact and contactless terminal, they are going to waive your annual PCI-DSS fees, which usually costs you around $5.00-$19.95/month per terminal. The overall long term cost savings of those compliance fees will be larger than the cost of an one time upgrade for the terminal.

The downside is that once EMV switchover happens and if you do not have a POS terminal that is able to accept EMV, the fraud liability shifts over to the merchant.

I own several fast food franchises. If I upgrade my POS terminals at all of my restaurants, it's going to cost me thousands, if not millions. I don't think anyone is going to use a fake credit card to buy $5 burgers. And if they do, wouldn't it be cheaper for me to eat the fraud cost?
Remember also that fraud isn't just committed by dishonest customers using fraudulent cards. Fraud can also happen with dishonest employees skimming off credit card data from the mag-stripe as in the case of a teenage McDonald's drive thru employee skimming off $13,000 of customers' credit cards in Olympia, WA. Consider the public relations fall out that your business may have if this happens (i.e. the big Target breach of 2013, where someone used a mag stripe card to load malware INTO Target's system). Is it worth risking to take such a huge PR disaster?
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Old Dec 9, 14, 8:50 pm
  #8596  
 
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Originally Posted by JEFFJAGUAR View Post
I think this should be true for all of us
Who are you to decide what "should" be important to all of us here? To me, the fraud prevention (not having to have cards reissued) potential benefits are huge. And it's not your place to say that shouldn't matter to me.
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Old Dec 9, 14, 8:59 pm
  #8597  
 
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I agree with AllieKat. It's not just the acceptance problem with mag stripe cards, but EMV does have additional security benefits. If Walmart is allowing swipes of EMV cards, then the security benefits are negated. If someone clones the mag stripe on an EMV card, they'd be able to use it at Walmart now whereas they'd be forced to insert the chip, which they wouldn't be able to clone, if Walmart were enforcing the service code.

True, we have effective no liability in the US anyway, but dealing with a stolen card is still something we'd rather not have to do.
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Old Dec 9, 14, 9:07 pm
  #8598  
 
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Originally Posted by Hawaiian717 View Post
I agree with AllieKat. It's not just the acceptance problem with mag stripe cards, but EMV does have additional security benefits. If Walmart is allowing swipes of EMV cards, then the security benefits are negated. If someone clones the mag stripe on an EMV card, they'd be able to use it at Walmart now whereas they'd be forced to insert the chip, which they wouldn't be able to clone, if Walmart were enforcing the service code.

True, we have effective no liability in the US anyway, but dealing with a stolen card is still something we'd rather not have to do.
Which is something someone on THIS FORUM has already had happen. If Walmart hadn't broke their system, at the least they'd have thought the card didn't work and gave up entirely; and best-case Walmart would have realised what was going on and called the police.
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Old Dec 9, 14, 9:29 pm
  #8599  
 
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Originally Posted by AllieKat View Post
Who are you to decide what "should" be important to all of us here? To me, the fraud prevention (not having to have cards reissued) potential benefits are huge. And it's not your place to say that shouldn't matter to me.
Sorry; of course I can't and shouldn't be speaking for everybody so in that sense, I apologize. No need to get angry, however. Ultimately, no matter how we feel here, the networks and the merchants will do what they think will cost them the least amount of money.
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Old Dec 9, 14, 9:30 pm
  #8600  
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Originally Posted by Hawaiian717 View Post
I agree with AllieKat. It's not just the acceptance problem with mag stripe cards, but EMV does have additional security benefits. If Walmart is allowing swipes of EMV cards, then the security benefits are negated. If someone clones the mag stripe on an EMV card, they'd be able to use it at Walmart now whereas they'd be forced to insert the chip, which they wouldn't be able to clone, if Walmart were enforcing the service code.

True, we have effective no liability in the US anyway, but dealing with a stolen card is still something we'd rather not have to do.
This. I'm not even sure I 100% got all of my online merchants changed after Chase sent me the new card. Can't wait until I get nastygrams from a couple of them because the old number declines.
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Old Dec 9, 14, 9:32 pm
  #8601  
 
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Originally Posted by JEFFJAGUAR View Post
Sorry; of course I can't and shouldn't be speaking for everybody so in that sense, I apologize. No need to get angry, however. Ultimately, no matter how we feel here, the networks and the merchants will do what they think will cost them the least amount of money.
1. Accepted. Thank you for apologising. I wasn't angry, just upset.

2. Yes, but all too often they do what will cost them the least money TODAY. The stock market is biased against long-term results, and paying the bills today isn't helped with long term results. You better believe if Target could go back to 2005 and deploy a solution with EMV (though that'd be difficult without network support in the US) and end-to-end encryption they would.
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Old Dec 9, 14, 9:44 pm
  #8602  
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So far, proper security practices (virus scanning, authentication controls, etc.) would have prevented the recent breaches. What EMV provides is two-fold:
  1. Making that information useless to hackers to make physical cards as long as the chip is always used 100% of the time. A hacker could still just find an online store that doesn't check CVV2 or AVS and still use the PAN and expiration date to steal money though.
  2. Providing a framework for additional security layers if properly implemented by all parties. For instance, the EMV chip could have a totally different PAN and expiration than what's printed on the card and as long as the issuer blocks all CNP transactions using it, that workaround in #1 is solved.
It's also possible that end-to-end encryption would do the exact same thing as #1 too. Well, as long as someone doesn't break the encryption. And we got rid of all the magstripe skimmers out there.

EDIT: speaking of not checking CVV2, apparently Omaha Steaks doesn't. They may still check billing address though, not sure.

Last edited by tmiw; Dec 9, 14 at 9:53 pm
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Old Dec 10, 14, 5:00 pm
  #8603  
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Discover to Spend More Than $35 Million on New Credit Cards With Chips

So assuming that $35 million is just for the cards themselves, that means 3.5-7 million will be issued in 2015 (per card cost is $5-10 per CNBC though this might be inflated). With almost 60 million cardholders as of 2012, that may mean Discover will be nowhere near ready for EMV by the October deadline.
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Old Dec 10, 14, 5:07 pm
  #8604  
 
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Discover is its own network, with very few (and declining - Walmart/Sams is out, as is ex-HSBC now CapOne) third-party issuers, so it can set whatever "deadline" it wants for its own liability shift.
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Old Dec 10, 14, 5:30 pm
  #8605  
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Originally Posted by lordsutch View Post
Discover is its own network, with very few (and declining - Walmart/Sams is out, as is ex-HSBC now CapOne) third-party issuers, so it can set whatever "deadline" it wants for its own liability shift.
There's also non-US and Canadian Diners Club cards and possibly the JCB cards issued in the US as well. Those aren't counted in the 60 million figure though and I believe the former are being changed out if not already EMV enabled

Anyway, assuming Discover cards are good for five years, that means that ~12 million cards would be changed out to EMV every 12 month period. Assuming equal distribution for each of the twelve months, we could be looking at a timeframe between May (7 million figure) and August (3.5 million) before the first Discover EMV cards are issued. If the former, there's a good chance they'll won't support offline transactions and possibly be chip and signature.
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Old Dec 10, 14, 7:46 pm
  #8606  
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Originally Posted by lordsutch View Post
Discover is its own network, with very few (and declining - Walmart/Sams is out, as is ex-HSBC now CapOne) third-party issuers, so it can set whatever "deadline" it wants for its own liability shift.
Originally Posted by tmiw View Post
There's also non-US and Canadian Diners Club cards and possibly the JCB cards issued in the US as well. Those aren't counted in the 60 million figure though and I believe the former are being changed out if not already EMV enabled

Anyway, assuming Discover cards are good for five years, that means that ~12 million cards would be changed out to EMV every 12 month period. Assuming equal distribution for each of the twelve months, we could be looking at a timeframe between May (7 million figure) and August (3.5 million) before the first Discover EMV cards are issued. If the former, there's a good chance they'll won't support offline transactions and possibly be chip and signature.
The Diners Club network (for non-US/non-Canadian Diners Club cards) and the Discover netowrk are the same network.

Meanwhile, reports on FT indicate that Diners Club cards in some other countries are still swipe-only, even as those countries have otherwise long gone all-EMV.
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Old Dec 10, 14, 8:11 pm
  #8607  
 
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Originally Posted by sdsearch View Post
The Diners Club network (for non-US/non-Canadian Diners Club cards) and the Discover netowrk are the same network.
Except in certain countries like Japan, where Discover cards don't work on whatever network is processing Diners Club cards. (Citi's fault, maybe?)

Originally Posted by tmiw View Post
There's also non-US and Canadian Diners Club cards and possibly the JCB cards issued in the US as well. Those aren't counted in the 60 million figure though and I believe the former are being changed out if not already EMV enabled
JCB USA issued cards have nothing to do with Discover issued cards, so there's a good reason those cards aren't included in that number!
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Old Dec 10, 14, 9:47 pm
  #8608  
 
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Originally Posted by tmiw View Post
Discover to Spend More Than $35 Million on New Credit Cards With Chips

So assuming that $35 million is just for the cards themselves, that means 3.5-7 million will be issued in 2015 (per card cost is $5-10 per CNBC though this might be inflated). With almost 60 million cardholders as of 2012, that may mean Discover will be nowhere near ready for EMV by the October deadline.
Discover doesn't have a deadline as the deadline was created by Amex, Visa and MC. Discover can just take their time. The deadline only applies to amex, Visa and MC credit and debit cards.
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Old Dec 10, 14, 9:50 pm
  #8609  
 
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Originally Posted by AllieKat View Post
It has become painfully obvious to me that the liability shift in the United States will be unlike anywhere else in the world where many, mostly smaller, businesses are going to just say "screw it, we'll deal with any fraud rather than upgrade" - many don't even know what EMV is yet, at less that 10 months to go. Only one large merchant has EMV enabled, and its implementation is terrible and useless.

Don't get me wrong, most transactions in the US next October will be EMV. But that's because most transactions occur at large merchants. American Express is trying to reach out to their merchants, but I still don't see small business having any real interest in supporting chip cards before the deadline.
Many small merchants just use what the bank gives them and a lot of them already have chip slots with EMV just a software update away. Wells Fargo Merchant services is enabling EMV and NFC 6 months from now. Chase Paymentech will enable it for all in a few months as well, with some being enabled now. Square has an EMV reader coming in Spring.

This means the only places you'd have to worry about are small merchants that uses a computer based POS system running a Windows variant- these merchants have a lot more work to do than just adding a PIN pad. Namely mom and pop pizza and burger joints etc.

The scary part, when talking with the owners of the aforementioned business, they don't even know what EMV Or chip cards even are, so they may be liable for fraud and not even know it. - probably due to irresponsible business owners, and thinking the leaflets about chip cards were advertising and didn't pay attention to it.

The cheapest solution for these businesses is just obtain a traditional terminal from their merchant provider, an ideal solution is redoing their store software, and add a PIN pad, like most larger stores.

Last edited by RedLight2015; Dec 10, 14 at 9:56 pm
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Old Dec 10, 14, 11:11 pm
  #8610  
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Originally Posted by RedLight2015 View Post
Discover doesn't have a deadline as the deadline was created by Amex, Visa and MC. Discover can just take their time. The deadline only applies to amex, Visa and MC credit and debit cards.
They're participating in the October liability shift just like the others: http://lp.verifone.com/media/2146788...art_021213.pdf

Originally Posted by RedLight2015 View Post
Many small merchants just use what the bank gives them and a lot of them already have chip slots with EMV just a software update away. Wells Fargo Merchant services is enabling EMV and NFC 6 months from now. Chase Paymentech will enable it for all in a few months as well, with some being enabled now. Square has an EMV reader coming in Spring.

This means the only places you'd have to worry about are small merchants that uses a computer based POS system running a Windows variant- these merchants have a lot more work to do than just adding a PIN pad. Namely mom and pop pizza and burger joints etc.

The scary part, when talking with the owners of the aforementioned business, they don't even know what EMV Or chip cards even are, so they may be liable for fraud and not even know it. - probably due to irresponsible business owners, and thinking the leaflets about chip cards were advertising and didn't pay attention to it.

The cheapest solution for these businesses is just obtain a traditional terminal from their merchant provider, an ideal solution is redoing their store software, and add a PIN pad, like most larger stores.
One Indian place here actually has a cheap Ingenico terminal but they're still using a restaurant POS. The former isn't hooked in though so they're still swiping.
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