1. Welcome to FlyerTalk and the SQ forum.
2. Don't know. You'd have to ask SQ that. You'd also be eligible or EU compensation too if you had originally started from FRA. Up to 600 euros I think but it doesnt cover you as you originated from the US.
Your fuel surcharge is not really considered as insurance for delays. You need to ask this with SQ Customer Relations. A separate travel insurance would have resolved th problem instantly.